Tuesday, August 14, 2012

Fat protects you against dying of diabetes!

A win for fatties!  The conclusion below must have been written with gritted teeth -- but it is based on a lot of data.  It's published in a top journal too
Association of Weight Status With Mortality in Adults With Incident Diabetes

By Mercedes R. Carnethon et al.


  Type 2 diabetes in normal-weight adults (body mass index [BMI] less than 25) is a representation of the metabolically obese normal-weight phenotype with unknown mortality consequences.


  To test the association of weight status with mortality in adults with new-onset diabetes in order to minimize the influence of diabetes duration and voluntary weight loss on mortality.

Design, Setting, and Participants

 Pooled analysis of 5 longitudinal cohort studies: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, 1990-2006; Cardiovascular Health Study, 1992-2008; Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults, 1987-2011; Framingham Offspring Study, 1979-2007; and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, 2002-2011. A total of 2625 participants with incident diabetes contributed 27 125 person-years of follow-up. Included were men and women (age >40 years) who developed incident diabetes based on fasting glucose 126 mg/dL or greater or newly initiated diabetes medication and who had concurrent measurements of BMI. Participants were classified as normal weight if their BMI was 18.5 to 24.99 or overweight/obese if BMI was 25 or greater.

Main Outcome Measures 

Total, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality.


The proportion of adults who were normal weight at the time of incident diabetes ranged from 9% to 21% (overall 12%). During follow-up, 449 participants died: 178 from cardiovascular causes and 253 from noncardiovascular causes (18 were not classified). The rates of total, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality were higher in normal-weight participants (284.8, 99.8, and 198.1 per 10 000 person-years, respectively) than in overweight/obese participants (152.1, 67.8, and 87.9 per 10 000 person-years, respectively). After adjustment for demographic characteristics and blood pressure, lipid levels, waist circumference, and smoking status, hazard ratios comparing normal-weight participants with overweight/obese participants for total, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality were 2.08 (95% CI, 1.52-2.85), 1.52 (95% CI, 0.89-2.58), and 2.32 (95% CI, 1.55-3.48), respectively.


  Adults who were normal weight at the time of incident diabetes had higher mortality than adults who are overweight or obese.


Disinfectant harmless to humans could be latest weapon against hospital superbugs

A disinfectant that is harmless to humans but deadly to superbugs is poised to become the latest weapon against hospital infections.

The germ-destroying product called Akwaton, works at low concentrations according to a study from the Université de Saint-Boniface in Canada.

Researchers tested the compound against bacterial spores of Clostridium difficile that attach to surfaces and are difficult to destroy.

Previous work by the group has shown Akwaton is also effective at low concentrations against strains of MRSA and E coli.

Spore-forming bacteria including C. difficile and MRSA can survive on surfaces for long periods of time.

Spores are heat-tolerant and can continue for a number of years in a dehydrated state before they are reactivated. Most chemical disinfectants control or prevent spore growth rather than irreversibly destroying them.

The latest study showed that Akwaton was able to destroy Bacillus subtilis bacterial spores, suspended in water and attached to stainless steel or glass surfaces, at concentrations well below one per cent after just 90 seconds' treatment. It was equally as effective at more dilute concentrations (below 0.1 per cent) if left to act for longer periods.

Lead researcher Dr Mathias Oulé, explained the advantages over other chemical compounds currently used against bacterial spores.

'Most disinfectants have to be applied at much higher concentrations – typically between 4-10 per cent - to properly get rid of bacterial spores.

'Unfortunately such high levels of these compounds may also be harmful to humans and other animals. Akwaton is non-corrosive, non-irritable, odourless and is effective at very low concentrations,' he said.

'Bacterial spores demonstrate a remarkable resistance to physical and chemical agents as well as ordinary antiseptics. On top of this micro-organisms are becoming increasingly resistant to disinfectants as well as antibiotics.

'Our latest study shows Akwaton is effective at destroying these spores as well as bacteria that are known problems in healthcare environments.'

The product is produced by Fofaton Akwaton International, which is based in South Africa.

The study is reported online in the Journal of Medical Microbiology.


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