Sunday, November 18, 2012

Drinking even small amounts of alcohol while pregnant 'can affect child's IQ'

Boring.  Just the old class effect again -- with (smarter) middle class mothers more likely to abstain completely

Even small amounts of alcohol consumed during pregnancy can adversely impact the IQ of a child, new research shows.

Drinking by pregnant women has been a controversial topic, with no scientific unanimity. While some experts propagate total abstinence from alcohol, others have favoured moderate consumption

The new study, which used a genetic approach to study the impact of alcohol, has concluded that children whose mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy had lower IQ when they were eight, compared to kids who were not exposed to any alcohol in the womb.

Researchers from the universities of Bristol and Oxford used data from over 4,000 mothers and their children to arrive at the conclusion. The study will be published in scientific journal PLOS ONE on Thursday.

In order to separate the impact of alcohol from other lifestyle factors such as smoking and diet, the researchers used genetic data.

They found that four genetic variants in alcohol-metabolising genes among 4,167 children studied were strongly related to lower IQ at age eight.

There was no effect seen in children whose mothers abstained during pregnancy, Dr Ron Gray from University of Oxford who led the research said.

When a person drinks alcohol, ethanol is converted to acetaldehyde by enzymes.

Variations in the genes that 'encode' these enzymes lead to differences in the ability to metabolise ethanol. In 'slow metabolisers', peak alcohol levels may be higher and persist for longer than in fast metabolisers', scientists explained.

It is believed that the fast' metabolism protects against abnormal brain development in infants because less alcohol is delivered to the fetus


New vaccine against most deadly strain of meningitis could soon be offered to all babies

The first vaccine to offer broad protection against meningitis B is to be licensed for use in the UK, drastically reducing the number of children killed by the disease.

There are 1,870 cases of meningitis B in the UK on average each year, resulting in up to 200 deaths – half of which occur in the under-fives.

As many as 400 children a year are also left with serious lifelong complications such as limb amputations, blindness, deafness and brain damage.

Although vaccination programmes have been successfully introduced to combat other strains of meningitis, no vaccine against the B strain currently exists in this country.

Meningococcal B is the most common form of bacterial meningitis in Britain, one of the most deadly, and the one that poses the toughest challenge to develop a vaccine for because there are so many variations to target.

Bexsero is the first vaccine providing broad protection against 800 deadly meningococcal B strains which, in some cases, can kill within hours.

The European Medicines Agency, a drug regulatory body which covers the UK, issued a 'positive opinion' on Bexsero yesterday, which means it is safe and effective.

This is the first step in an approval process that should result in the jab, developed by Novartis, being licensed within three months.

But the critical decision on whether it will become part of the routine NHS immunisation programme for babies and children lies with the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation, which advises the Government.

It will consider factors such as price, cost-effectiveness and compatibility with other childhood vaccines. The last major vaccine against meningitis – the pneumococcal vaccine – took five years to be introduced into the immunisation schedule.

Steve Dayman, founder of the Meningitis UK charity who lost his baby Spencer to meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia in 1982, said: 'This is a landmark moment in the fight against meningitis. I have waited three decades to hear this along with many other families who have supported the cause.

'It is vital that the vaccine is introduced in the UK immunisation schedule as soon as possible.

'It will save countless lives and prevent many people enduring the suffering caused by this devastating disease. We will be campaigning hard to make the Government introduce it.'

Andrin Oswald, of Novartis, said the company was already in discussions with the Government and warned: 'Every year of delay in a country like Britain costs the lives of dozens more children who do not have to die – a sense of urgency is appropriate.'

In trials involving 7,500 children, adolescents and adults, the vaccine, which can be used for babies aged two months and older, produced antibodies against 77 per cent of strains.

Sue Davie, chief executive of the Meningitis Trust charity, said: 'We see the devastation that meningitis continues to cause to victims and their families, tearing lives apart in a matter of hours.

'This vaccine could save many lives every year, but it could also save the long-term suffering that many survivors face after the disease.'

But she warned that people must not become complacent as, even if Bexsero is introduced, people are still not protected from all types of meningitis.

She said: 'It's vital that everyone makes themselves aware of the signs and symptoms and remains vigilant.'

Professor David Salisbury, director of immunisation at the Department of Health, said: 'The independent expert group on vaccines that advises the Government is currently looking at use of this vaccine and will provide advice in due course.'


No comments: