Friday, July 26, 2013
Mothers who smoke during pregnancy are more likely to have children with 'bad behaviour or ADHD'
So WHO were the "Mothers who smoke during pregnancy"? Mostly lower class women and lower class people have more health problems anyway
Children are more likely to be unruly and badly behaved if their mothers smoked in pregnancy, claim researchers.
The risk of antisocial behaviour rose among children whose mothers smoked.
They were more likely to have poor attention spans and show disruptive behaviour such as ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder).
An analysis of three existing studies from New Zealand, the U.S. and Cardiff analysed rates of conduct problems between the ages of four and 10 years.
Such problems include bad behaviour and attention difficulties.
The study published in the medical journal JAMA Psychiatry found a link between maternal smoking and conduct disorders that rose with the amount of cigarettes smoked.
Lead researcher Gordon Harold of Leicester University, said: 'The increase is relative to the frequency of smoking.'
Dr Theodore Slotkin, of Duke University Medical Center, North Carolina, in a linked editorial in the journal, added: 'The conclusion is incontrovertible: prenatal tobacco smoke exposure contributes significantly to subsequent conduct disorder in offspring.
'We now know that the consequences of prenatal tobacco exposure are not restricted to perinatal risk, but rather extend to the lifespan and affect the quality of life for countless individuals.'
Previous U.S. research has suggested that later behavioural problems in children may be linked to drinking during pregnancy.
Earlier this week research revealed that nicotine addict mothers and fathers cut back on Christmas presents for their children, buy them less clothing and even feed them less to fund their daily cigarette habit.
The poll, which examined the lifestyle behaviour of smokers, also discovered that some people stole from friends, applied for credit cards and even asked strangers on the street for money when
desperate for their fix.
The research was carried out by pharmaceutical company Pfizer as part of their Don't Go Cold Turkey Campaign and asked 6,271 smokers about how they funded smoking in tougher economic times.
It revealed that while 60 per cent of smokers refused to pay more than £8 for a packet of cigarettes, one per cent - which equated to 31 people - were willing to pay an astonishing £40.
The most alarming statistics related to smoking parents however. It found that many were often more willing to reduce their child's quality of life than go without cigarettes.
A shocking 20 per cent admitted to having bought their children fewer or cheaper clothes and shoes to save money instead of quitting smoking.
Could your daily vitamin pills take years OFF your life?
They're taken by thousands to boost their health but recent studies have found some supplements could do more harm than good
Vitamin pills are big business - from chewable ones for children and tablets especially tailored for women going through the menopause to essential oils for dodgy joints and high-dose vitamin C to pep up your immune system, there’s a supplement for everyone.
But can vitamins actually be bad for your health?
It seems that your daily pill can do more harm than good. Indeed, last week saw the revelation that fish oil capsules have been linked to high levels of prostate cancer - a shock for the millions who take fish oils or omega-3 fatty acids every day in the quest to ease joint pain, improve heart health and fight mental decline.
A study of more than 2,000 men found that those with the highest levels of omega-3 in their blood were 71 per cent more likely to develop the most lethal form of prostate cancer, and 44 per cent more likely to develop low-grade prostate cancer.
And it’s not just omega-3 that is under scrutiny. According to Dr Alan Kristal, who led the study at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Centre in Seattle, there is surprisingly little evidence that any vitamin or mineral pills prevent disease - unless people are suffering from a nutrient deficiency.
‘As we do more and more of these studies, we find high doses of supplements have no effect or increase the risk of the disease you are trying to prevent,’ he says. Yet millions of busy Britons take vitamins to compensate for a poor diet.
One in three of us takes a supplement, and we spend about £209 million a year on vitamin pills. The message last week from experts was not to panic.
For most people, taking multivitamin and mineral supplements at the recommended dose is safe.
So amid all this confusing and sometimes contradictory advice, which supplements work and, more importantly, which ones are safe?
While they might be the most wide-ranging supplement in the UK - providing 100 per cent of our daily allowance of everything from vitamin B to copper - there is little evidence that they do any good.
In 2010, French researchers followed 8,000 volunteers who had taken either a multivitamin or a dummy placebo pill for six years.
They found that those who popped the vitamin pill were just as likely to suffer heart disease or cancer as those taking the placebo.
That work followed a 2008 major review of 67 studies - involving 230,000 people - which found no evidence that multivitamins prolonged life.
Some studies have even suggested that high doses could do more harm than good.
In 2011, the Iowa Women’s Health Study looked at the health of more than 38,000 older women and found that women who regularly took multivitamins were 2.4 per cent more likely to die over the 19 years of the study.
Their research also showed that use of vitamin B6 increased the risk of death during the study by 4.1 per cent, folic acid by 5.9 per cent, iron by 3.9 per cent, magnesium by 3.6 per cent, zinc by 3 per cent and copper by 18 per cent.
However, the study didn’t take into account the fact that many people start taking heavy doses of vitamins only when they develop serious diseases such as cancer.
But Dr Kristal says: ‘Dozens of studies of multivitamins show that they do absolutely nothing at the recommended doses.’
So if your diet contains plenty of fresh food and your five-a-day, it’s unlikely a multivitamin pill is essential.
Doctors have known since the 1750s, when British sailors were first issued with limes, that vitamin C is essential for health. It helps to heal wounds, strengthens the body’s connective tissues and keeps cells healthy.
But despite the many health claims made about vitamin C, there is little evidence that it does much good as a supplement.
While it does appear to shorten the duration of colds, there is little real proof that it staves off illness, Dr Kristal says.
And the high doses recommended by some supporters of alternative medicine may do more harm than good.
In February, an 11-year study of more than 23,000 men found that those who took high doses of the supplement - typically 1,000 mg - were twice as likely to develop kidney stones compared to men who took no pills.
A 2002 study showed that 1g doses of vitamin C and vitamin E almost trebled the risk of premature death among postmenopausal women in any year.
The Department of Health says adults need 40 mg a day but doses up to 1,000 mg a day are unlikely to cause harm. Anyone worried about their intake should decide whether they are exceeding their safe daily dose.
For example, the effervescent vitamin drink Berocca contains 476 mg. One tablet of a supplement like this, combined with a diet of fresh fruit, could tip you over the safe dosage.
Posted by jonjayray at 4:47 AM